Peace and stability operations workshop strives to forecast future requirements

By Curt Keester 15 April 2019

CARLISLE, Pa. (April 9, 2019) – Peace and stability operations experts from the Department of Defense, Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development discussed plans for future activities in complex operating environments during a three-day workshop at the Army War College.

The Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute hosted its annual Peace and Stability Operations Training and Education Workshop in Root Hall, April 3-5, 2019. Throughout the three days, trainers, educators and planners from military, civilian, governmental and non-governmental organizations, stability centers and institutions shared best practices, worked through challenges and shared methodologies.

This year’s theme focused on “Forecasting Peacekeeping and Stability Requirements in a Changing World.” The civilian and military practitioners took part in theme-related working groups that focused on stability planning, integrated campaigning, defense institution building and institutional capacity building, transitional public security application, women, peace and security, and defense support to stabilization.

The working group discussions provided insights, assessments, and recommendations on education, training, and leadership development within the peace and stability operations community. Afterward, the groups presented findings to a senior leader panel.

“We’re talking about training and education of security cooperation practitioners for institutional capacity building,” said John Sannar, the coordinator for Defense Institution Building at U.S. Africa Command. “Institutional capacity building is a new and dynamic area within security cooperation, and so talking about training and education of security cooperation professionals in this area is a timely topic for us.” Sannar facilitated the “Training and Education Security Cooperation Practitioners for Institutional Capacity Building” working group discussion.

The goal was to produce products to train and educate the joint force and international partners on peace and stability operations, provide a forum that addresses the equities of the community of practice and its activities, and to foster collaboration between the joint professional military education and academic communities.

“This year’s PSOTEW was an extremely successful event, due to the efforts of the working group leads,” said Col. Jim Lowe, Deputy Director of PKSOI. “Each year the event gets better from the participation of a wide community of interest and stakeholders. With their participation and feedback, we make progress across the whole of government as well as international partners.”

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Guns or Growth: Lessons from Security-First and Civil-Society-First Approaches to Peacebuilding in East Timor

International Tropical Timber Agreement, 2006. Geneva, 27 January 2006 Signature H. E. Ms. Kirsti Lintonen, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Finland

This case study examines conditions and situations faced by several United Nations peacekeeping and peacebuilding missions in East Timor with the goal of applying the lessons learned from their responses to similar dilemmas in future peacekeeping operations (PKOs). East Timor provides a unique setting for the application of theory to practice, as the successive UN missions (UNAMET, INTERFET, and UNTAET) each took different approaches in their attempts to overcome obstacles on the ground. By studying and critically examining specific operational decisions and the subsequent repercussions, readers will gain a better understanding of the debates surrounding the integration of local personnel into PKOs, security vs. civil society in the first stages of peacekeeping missions, and the use of Whole of Government vs. Whole of Society approaches to peacebuilding.

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Operationalizing R2P: An integrated Approach for the Responsibility to Protect

This paper discusses the two prominent frameworks for the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), which refers to the obligation of states toward their populations and toward all populations at risk of genocide and other mass atrocity crimes. The 2001 R2P report by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty presented three phases for R2P (prevent, react, rebuild). Subsequently, the United Nations articulated R2P in three pillars (state responsibility to protect, international responsibility to assist a state, and international responsibility to act when a state is unwilling or unable to do so).

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“Bury the Dead, Feed the Living;”

Bury the Dead, Feed the Living is more than a history on Civil Affairs; rather, it is a detailed account of how the United States conducted Stability Operations from the shores of Morocco to the mountains of Germany. Dr. Raymond Millen’s book serves as a primer on preparing, organizing and implementing Stability in the course of a conflict. 

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A Drone’s Strike Away: Peace and Security in the Age of Automated Warfare

U.S. Air Force Staff Sgt. Cameron Saylor, 7th Reconnaissance Squadron security forces patrolman, stands guard Oct. 25, 2018, at Naval Air Station Sigonella, Italy. The 7th RS is an inter-mixed unit, which is composed of not only the operation side of the RQ-4 Global Hawk but includes maintenance, communications, security forces, logistics and support staff. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Ramon A. Adelan)

Drones for military use are typically classified in three broad categories: UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) and USVs (Unmanned Surface Vehicles).   UAVs are either remote controlled aircraft (e.g. flown by a pilot at a ground control station) or can fly autonomously following pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. The US military uses UAVs for missions ranging from reconnaissance to combat. Most generally, UAVs are capable of “controlled, sustained level flight and powered by a jet or reciprocating engine.”  While a cruise missile can also be considered to be a UAV, it is treated separately on the basis that it is considered a weapon. To reflect on the complex nature of modern autonomous systems that include ground stations and other elements besides the actual air vehicles, the US military now uses the term “Unmanned Aircraft Systems” (UAS). To read more click on the link below.

Joint-Certified Operational Gender Advisor Course

From 3-7 December 2018, PKSOI participated in the second Joint-certified Operational Gender Advisor Course (OGC) hosted at the USSOUTHCOM Headquarters. Dr. Elizabeth Lape, the J-7 Deputy of Individual Training and Learning led the course. Students who complete the OGC receive joint credit, and are qualified to serves as Gender Advisors (GENADs) on staffs in operational settings and during exercises. 
The United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 (2000) acknowledges the significant effects conflict particularly has on women and girls, and also recognizes the role women play as key stakeholders in promoting lasting peace and security. As of November 2018, this resolution has inspired 79 countries across the globe to invest in national action plans to proactively address these challenges and opportunities within the security environment. In addition to the UNSCR 1325 on peacebuilding, subsequent UNSCRs continue to be published covering: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR); civil society initiatives; Children and Armed Conflict (CAAC); Protection of Civilians (PoC) in Armed Conflict; sexual violence (for example, Gender-Based Violence (GBV) as a war crime and ending sexual violence; women in the peace process; violence against men, women and children; sexual violence in conflict, and post- conflict including men; women’s role in conflict prevention/resolution; Countering Violent Extremism (CVE); Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA) in peace operations; and Human Trafficking (HT). 
The OGC is in response to mandatory training required by the 2017 Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Act and the U.S. National Action Plan on WPS (2011 and revised in 2016), in which the latter specifies tasks to the Department of Defense (DoD). These DoD tasks encompass five objectives: institutionalization, prevention of conflict, protection, participation and access to relief and recovery. During the OGC, the PKSOI WPS Army Lead representative, COL Veronica Oswald-Hrutkay, a 2017 NATO GENAD course graduate, supported efforts as an instructor and small group syndicate leader, while piloting the draft PKSOI “Commander and Staff Guide to Women, Peace, and Security: Integrating a Gender Perspective into Military Operations.” Twenty students and 4 instructors utilized the guide as a key reference during the course in individual and group exercises, as well as during their final written evaluations. The guide was so beneficial to the students that the Course Director is interested in including the guide as a tool for future OGCs. Inquiries about the draft Guide can be made by contacting the PKSOI WPS Army Lead.
Currently, the OGC is initially rotating through all six combatant commands, with the next course anticipated in EUCOM around May/June 2019. After this, the course may reside in one location within the U.S. In addition to training Gender Advisors, the course expands opportunities to build a support network within the WPS community, as well as to share best practices to integrate WPS concepts efficiently across the DoD. 
Other WPS and gender related resources include two Joint Knowledge On-line (JKO) training modules called “Improving Operational Effectiveness by Integrating Gender Perspectives” and “The Role of the Gender Advisors.” In addition, PKSOI collects WPS information within its Stability Operations Lessons Learned and Information Management System (SOLLIMS), which has a separate portal focused on WPS. In November 2017, SOLLIMS published a series of WPS vignettes, called “Operationalizing WPS.” As part of the WPS agenda, Combatant Commands created Directives and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) related to WPS and the gender perspective, such as PACOM’s Multinational Force SOP. 
Looking forward, PKSOI will host a WPS Working Group during its annual Peace and Stability Operations Training and Education Workshop (PSOTEW) from 3-5 April 2019 at the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Participants in the past years included WPS interagency, academia, civil society and subject matter experts. In anticipation of the WPS Strategy, DoD is working on a DoD Implementation Plan/Instruction in early 2019. PSOTEW offers an opportunity to bring the WPS community together and work together to synchronize efforts.

PKSOI provides instruction at the Ethiopian Peacekeeping Training Center (EIPKTC)

Post Conflict Recovery Course Class Photo taught 5-16 November 2018 at the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Peace Support Training Center (FDRE-PSTC) that included representation from 8 African Nations in addition to educational training support from Japan and the United States.

In conjunction with the countries of Ethiopia, Japan, United States, and United Nations Development Program, LT COLONEL Norihisa Urakami of the National Defense Academy of Japan and U.S. Navy CAPTAIN Danny King from the U.S. Army War College Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute, both collaborated together in administering the Post Conflict Recovery Course recently (5-16 NOV 2018) taught at the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Peace Support Training Center located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with a special emphasis on Security Sector Reform (SSR). The class included students representing the Diplomatic Community, Military, Police Force, and Judicial Branch from 8 various countries within the content of Africa. “Helping make the world a safer place through collaboration, training, and working together to protect and serve…”  “In a location of the world where we are witnessing both China and Russia’s increased interest/influence, the United States Africa Command’s (USAFRICOM) number one line of effort is strengthening partner capacity within various African nations, by focusing on strengthening mutually beneficial networks between the U.S. and key partners.” – CAPT Danny King. To read more of CAPT King’s Ethiopia Post-Conflict Recovery click on link below.

U.S. Navy CAPTAIN Danny King provides an overview of the U.S. Army War College Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute to include a special introductory class on the SOLLIMS data base.  Ms. Fasika Tesfaye is captured perusing the SOLLIMS data base, which lead to very positive feedback of its content and use from Ms. Tesfaye and fellow students.

U.S. Navy CAPT Danny King from the Army War College Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute provides training lectures to the students covering components of Security Sector Reform that included Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR), Rule of Law, Police/Security Reform, and Defense (Military) Sector Reform.

During the final case study and table top exercise, Ambassador Daisuke Matsunaga (Japanese Ambassador to Ethiopia), COL Elias Seyoum (Acting Head of FDRE-PSTC), LTC Norihisa Urakami (International Consultant), and CAPT Danny King (Senior Naval Advisor PKSOI) are captured observing the class collaborating and demonstrating the special negotiation skill sets acquired throughout the Post Conflict Recovery Course

United Nations Infantry Battalion Manual (UNIBAM)

PKSOI’s COL Ryan Wolfgram represented the United States as a member of the United Nations Infantry Battalion Manual (UNIBAM) Review Committee to edit and update the 2012 UNIBAM.  This was the fourth session of the UNIBAM Review Committee which was held at the Air Force Military Lodging and Conventions Center (CEMCOHA) at Salvador, Brazil, from 4 to 10 November 2018. Over the past year, representatives from ten countries traveled to Nigeria, Bangladesh, and most recently Brazil to assist in this revision. As pictured, Lt. Gen. Jose Eduardo, Joint operations Deputy of Armed Forces Joint Staff along with Lt. Gen. Silva Al vim, 6th Military Region Commander of the Brazilian Army hosted this final working group session in Salvador, Brazil. COL Wolfgram is in the second row standing second from the right. The updated manual is expected to be released in January-February 2019 time frame.

PKSOI/AUSA Annual Strategic Stability Seminar

From left to right: AUSA President and former AFRICOM Commander GEN (R) Carter Ham, USAWC Commandant MG John Kem, former Deputy Commanding General to AFRICOM VADM (R) Michael Franken, and Commander, Allied Joint Forces Command Brunssum, GEN Riccardo Marchiò

On September 17, 2018, the Association of the United States Army (AUSA) and the U.S. Army War College’s Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute hosted a one-day strategic seminar to discuss the major aspects and ongoing NATO efforts to define and integrate its “Projecting Stability” concept. The seminar was held at the AUSA conference center in Arlington,Virginia. What follows in the link below is a short description of key points and themes arising from the conference.