This edition of the Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute’s Semiannual Lesson Report examines facets of Multinational Interoperability (MNI) Command and Control (C2) and Transitions in peace operations and stability activities. This report builds on a 2020 report, PKSOI Semiannual Lesson Report, Multinational Interoperability for Peace and Stability, which provides a framework for the interoperability discourse in three aspects: procedural, human, and technical. This report focuses on the human aspect as it reflects in the military command and control environment. It uses the interoperability definition found in Joint Publication (JP) 3-16, Multinational Operations, because it relates to multinational commands and refers to relationships among multinational partners within a command environment.
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