The U.S. Army Peacekeeping Institute (PKI), located at the U.S. Army War College has previously conducted studies of Civil Military Operations (CMO) in U.S. military engagements abroad. Based on comments from various levels of command engaged in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, PKI felt that the one-year mark was the proper time to do an assessment of CMO there. Most participants would be completing tours and have the time and perspective to reflect on their experiences. In late FY 03, PKI was reorganized into the U.S. Army Peace Keeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI). This report is therefore published under the auspices of PKSOI.