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PKSOI Papers

For publication submission please refer to our format guides and Publications Style Guide then submit to the Publications Coordinator.

August 31, 2020
Crippling Insurgencies with National Reconciliation Programs: A Primer for Military Practitioners
Crippling Insurgencies with National Reconciliation Programs: A Primer for Military Practitioners

This primer on reconciliation programs serves to complement counterinsurgency strategies. While such programs require a fair amount of organization, resources, funding and manpower, the key distinction is they are predominately managed by host nation governments. This requirement means that US military and government officials must focus on advising and the provision of resources to support a reconciliation program. The purpose of this primer is to inform US advisors on the salient features of a reconciliation program. This task is by no means simple because host nation governments are unlikely to pursue a reconciliation program without US persistence and guidance.
This primer provides a methodical approach to inducing surrender among common insurgents and providing ways for them to become productive citizens. Effective reconciliation programs have the potential to shorten the length and costs of an insurgency. Such programs serve to accelerate the healing process in the midst of an insurgency. In the aftermath of an insurgency, reconciliation programs provide the requisite infrastructure for the implementation of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs. As such, reconciliation programs lay the groundwork for enduring stability in an affected country.

May 18, 2020
Death by a Thousand Cuts
Death by a Thousand Cuts

Death by a Thousand Cuts explores the application of national reconciliation programs to undermine insurgencies from within and lay the groundwork for stability in the post-conflict period. Dr. Raymond A. Millen presents three case studies—Malaya, South Vietnam, and Iraq—for his examination of national reconciliation programs. Such programs have received little attention after the Vietnam conflict, so this study provides insights of particular interest for US assistance to countries suffering from an insurgency.

March 2, 2020
US Foreign Police Advising: The Case of Vietnam
US Foreign Police Advising: The Case of Vietnam

Foreign assistance in policing is not a new phenomenon, but often we fail to consider the past, while planning for the future. Since 1989, the role of the US in several stability operations has increased, such as: Panama (1989), Somalia (1992), Haiti (1994, 2004), Bosnia (1995), Kosovo (1999), Afghanistan (2001), and Iraq (2003). Additionally, US military and civilian organizations have been used to rebuild military and police forces and to provide logistics to international forces (El Salvador, 1991; East Timor, 1999). With the intention of avoiding past mistakes in future stability activities, we have endeavored to capture the lessons from Vietnam policing development.

February 15, 2019
Operationalizing R2P: An Integrated Approach for the Responsibility to Protect
Operationalizing R2P: An Integrated Approach for the Responsibility to Protect

This paper discusses the two prominent frameworks for the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), which refers to the obligation of states toward their populations and toward all populations at risk of genocide and other mass atrocity crimes. The 2001 R2P report by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty presented three phases for R2P (prevent, react, rebuild). Subsequently, the United Nations articulated R2P in three pillars (state responsibility to protect, international responsibility to assist a state, and international responsibility to act when a state is unwilling or unable to do so). 

By Dwight Raymond and Annie Su
February 6, 2019
"Bury the Dead, Feed the Living:" The History of Civil Affairs/Military Government in the Mediterranean and European Theaters of Operation during World War II
"Bury the Dead, Feed the Living:" The History of Civil Affairs/Military Government in the Mediterranean and European Theaters of Operation during World War II

Bury the Dead, Feed the Living is more than a history on Civil Affairs; rather, it is a detailed account of how the United States conducted Stability Operations from the shores of Morocco to the mountains of Germany. Dr. Raymond Millen’s book serves as a primer on preparing, organizing and implementing Stability in the course of a conflict.

June 13, 2018
Stability in Multi-Domain Battle
Stability in Multi-Domain Battle

Multi-Domain Battle (MDB) is an operational concept developed by the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) that describes ground combat operations against sophisticated peer and near-peer threats. In February 2017, TRADOC published a white paper titled “Multi-Domain Battle: Combined Arms for the 21st Century” to initiate the discussion of MDB across the Army and the Joint Force. TRADOC subsequently published a more detailed description of MDB in “Multi-Domain Battle: Evolution of Combined Arms for the 21st Century 2025-2040” along with the new Army Operations doctrinal series (ADP 3-0, ADRP 3-0, and FM 3-0) in October 2017.1 These documents are designed “promote thought and discussion concerning the methods and capabilities required to confront sophisticated adversaries” as well as “to inform further concept development, wargaming, experimentation, and capability development.

June 5, 2018
Stabilization: A New Approach to Whole of Government Operational Planning and Execution
Stabilization: A New Approach to Whole of Government Operational Planning and Execution

The United States has a compelling national security interest to promote stability in select fragile and conflict-affected states.  Such an operational environment is complex and requires a whole-of-U.S. Government response, coupled with non-governmental and international partners and supported by the affected nation to achieve their own national goals.  Since 1947, the national security system has struggled to handle effectively the range and complexity of the existing global threats and opportunities.

March 16, 2018
2017-2018 Civil Affairs Issue Papers: Civil Affairs: A Force for Consolidating Gains
2017-2018 Civil Affairs Issue Papers: Civil Affairs: A Force for Consolidating Gains

The issue of the role of Civil Affairs in consolidation activities – across all phases and in particular the human domain – was the main focus of the opening workshop. MG Sonntag noted how timely this event was given how Secretary of Defense James Mattis and National Security Advisor Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster (the 2015 Symposium keynote speaker) see the increased need to consolidate military and security gains into political and civil outcomes.

March 13, 2018
Program Management Approach to Stability Operations
Program Management Approach to Stability Operations

This monograph explores how and why to pursue the integrated program management function as a means to improve the effectiveness of stability operations. Section 1 of the analysis defines a traditional military approach to stability operations and a traditional program management approach. Section 2 juxtaposes stability operations with program management to showcase already-existing similarities. Section 3 applies four program management domains to stability operations to demonstrate potential benefits. Section 4 highlights how the application of program management functions to stability operations is compatible with the interagency approach. Lastly, Section 5 discusses Army Acquisition Corps capabilities that the Army can modify to perform this role.

January 19, 2018
Stability Operations in Kosovo 1999-2000: A Case Study
Stability Operations in Kosovo 1999-2000: A Case Study

This case study examines the intervention and stability operations in Kosovo from March 24, 1999 through approximately 2 years thereafter. Set during the dissolution of the former Yugoslavia and preceded by ethnic carnage in Bosnia, Croatia, and elsewhere, the intervention, named Operation ALLIED FORCE, was executed in order to protect Kosovars of Albanian descent from the ethnic cleansing of the Serbian leaders of the remaining federation of Yugoslavia.