Peace Operations Estimates, Themes, and Topics (POET2)
The Peace Operations Estimates, Themes, and Topics (POET2) are a 15-20 page overview of selected peace operation missions and organizations. They also include selected organizational estimates (i.e. United Nations Peace Operations Organization), and Political Missions (i.e. Columbia, Burundi, Libya).
They are unclassified, open source, easily digestible and accessible. They are intended to provide a comprehensive summary of the actors, issues, and considerations of various global peace activities.
The POET2s are updated quarterly or semi-annually, depending on type, and after a revised mandate is in place.
- February 15, 2018
- Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute G5 Sahel's Force Conjointe des Etats du G5 Sahel (FC G5S) Estimate
The five African nations of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger formed the G5 Sahel (G5-S) in 2014 for the stated purpose of strengthening cooperation on development and security in the region. The organization works together to identify priority investment projects and seek sources of international financing, focusing on areas such as infrastructure, food security, agriculture and pastoralism as well as terrorist threats and other security concerns.
- February 12, 2018
- United Nations Multidimensional Stabilization Mission in Mali and United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel
In late January 2018, Jean-Pierre Lacroix, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, described the Mali situation as a “race against time”:
…with growing insecurity claiming hundreds of civilian lives, in addition to fatalities among peacekeepers in the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and members of Mali’s defence [sic] and security forces. The human rights and humanitarian situation was worsening…with humanitarian actors estimating that 4.1 million Malians, or 22 per cent of the national population, facing the prospect of food insecurity in 2018.
- January 30, 2018
- Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute UN Verification Mission in Colombia Estimate
Just over a year ago, the western hemisphere’s longest insurgency in modern history (52 years) came to a close with the Colombian Congress’ approval of a revised peace deal between the government and the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia-Ejército del Pueblo (FARC-EP, or simply FARC).
While the FARC sought peace with the Colombian government for several reasons, sustainable stability is not assured. According to one report:
- January 28, 2018
- United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (Golan Heights)
UNDOF of the Golan Heights is one of five current missions with a Chapter VI mandate (sometimes referred to as a “traditional” mandate). Since 1974, the mission tasks have been to maintain the ceasefire between Israel and Syria and to supervise the areas of separation and limitation, as defined by the Separation of Forces Agreement between Israel and Syria (also known as the Agreement of Disengagement, which is the same title of a similar agreement between Israel and Egypt). However, in the 43 years of UNDOF—and the 50 years since the 1967 Six-Day War which resulted in the current disposition of borders—not much else has occurred to resolve the conflict.
- January 16, 2018
- United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan
The political, security, and humanitarian environment in the Republic of South Sudan remains one of the most complex among fragile states, creating “the largest refugee crisis on the African continent,” according to some reports. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) predicts the refugee population could exceed three million by December 2018, with some observers currently reporting almost 2 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs).
- December 15, 2017
- United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic and United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa
Although the 2016 elections were peaceful and President Faustin Archange Touadéra’s new government was confirmed, Central African Republic (CAR) remains one of the ten “most fragile” states, ranking third on the 2017 index. Almost two years since the installation of the new government, and over three years after its activation, MINUSCA is still struggling to have a significant impact on the situation. In October 2017, the UN Secretary General reported:
- December 4, 2017
- United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei
The Abyei Area Administration was established to permit its citizens to be simultaneously members of the states of South Kurdufan (Republic of the Sudan) and Northern Bahr el Ghazal (South Sudan) until a projected referendum could be conducted following South Sudan’s independence. However, the referendum did not occur as planned, nor has the Administration been fully implemented to date. Instead, when violence increased along the disputed borders, the United Nations mission, UNISFA, was established for “demilitarizing and monitoring peace.
- November 7, 2017
- United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH)
In April 2017, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) extended the MINUSTAH mandate until October 2017 with UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 2350 (2017).The mission maintained its authorized troop strength for that period of time, but was expected to initiate drawdown procedures and transition activities with a smaller mission, United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti, or MINUJUSTH. MINUJUSTH’s mandate will be reviewed in April 2018.
- September 12, 2017
- United Nations African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur
Established in 2007, UNAMID is among the largest of the world’s peacekeeping missions. It was created after four years of conflict between rebels and the Khartoum government. While Darfur’s stability has improved in the last few years, some areas in Darfur (such as Jebel Marra) remain unstable. Despite this continued instability, UNAMID was reduced in size in its June 2017 mandate revision [UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 2363(2017)].
- June 5, 2017
- United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire
After thirteen years, the UNOCI Mission formally concludes on 30 June 2017. The redeployment of the Mission forces began last year and was complete by February 2017. The civilian staff completed its withdrawal by April 2017.
The UNOCI conclusion marks “the most recent successful completion of a peacekeeping operation in West Africa since the UN mission in Sierra Leone in 2005.” However, some remind observers that the UNOCI fulfillment also marks the most recent successful completion of any UN peacekeeping mission—regardless of geography.