Somalia Country Profile – Geography

From Cia Factbook (Page last updated on October 09, 2020)

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Area:

  • total: 637,657 sq km
  • land: 627,337 sq km
  • water: 10,320 sq km

Land boundaries:

  • total: 2,385 km
  • border countries (3): Djibouti 61 km, Ethiopia 1640 km, Kenya 684 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Elevation:

  • mean elevation: 410 m
  • lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  • highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves

Land use:

  • agricultural land: 70.3% (2011 est.) – arable land: 1.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 68.5% (2011 est.)
  • forest: 10.6% (2011 est.)
  • other: 19.1% (2011 est.)
  • irrigated land: 2,000 sq km (2012)

Population distribution: distribution varies greatly throughout the country; least densely populated areas are in the northeast and central regions, as well as areas along the Kenyan border; most populated areas are in and around the cities of Mogadishu, Marka, Boorama, Hargeysa, and Baidoa as shown on this population distribution map

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during the rainy season

Environment – current issues: water scarcity; contaminated water contributes to human health problems; improper waste disposal; deforestation; land degradation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

These products are the results of academic research and intended for general information and awareness only. They include the best information publicly available at the time of publication. Routine efforts are made to update the materials; however, readers are encouraged to check the specific mission site at https://amisom-au.org.

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